She had just left the hospital, and had so many scheduled doctor’s appointments over the next several weeks that the last thing she wanted to do was going to the emergency department. There were things to do around the house…shopping, cleaning, mail. Friends were coming over. But the chest pressure that had starting after waking up this morning would just not stop.

This 70-year-old woman had been through a lot recently. She had suffered with aortic stenosis for many years. After long talks with her many physicians and surgeon and a carefully considered pro/con list, she had agreed to undergo surgery. She underwent an surgical aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve. She had planned her surgery thoroughly. She knew what to expect on getting to the hospital, the day of surgery, and what each day after surgery would involve up to her expected discharge on POD #4. Her planning ha